Expressions[ edit ] Anthropologists propose three subdivisions of homosexuality: In his study of native cultures pederasty appears typically as a passing stage in which the adolescent is the beloved of an older male, remains as such until he reaches a certain developmental threshold, after which he in turn takes on an adolescent beloved of his own.
Common measure of value abstract Medium of exchange concrete Standard for deferred payments abstract Store of value concrete General functions mostly macro-economic and An essay on the athenian empire Liquid asset Framework of the market allocative system prices A causative factor in the economy Controller of the economy The table above comes from page 27 of A History of Money.
Not everything used as money as all the functions listed above. Furthermore the functions of any particular form of money may change over time.
As Glyn Davies points out on page The logical listing of functions in the table therefore implies no priority in either time or importance, for those which may be both first and foremost reflect only their particular time and place.
Money is anything that is widely used for making payments and accounting for debts and credits. Causes of the Development of Money In his preface the author writes: Commodities were chosen as preferred barter items for a number of reasons - some because they were conveniently and easily stored, some because they had high value densities and were easily portable, and some because they were durable.
These commodities, being widely desired, would be easy to exchange for others and therefore they came to be accepted as money.
To the extent that the disadvantages of barter provided an impetus for the development of money that impetus was purely economic but archaeological, literary and linguistic evidence of the ancient world, and the tangible evidence of actual types of primitive money from many countries demonstrate that barter was not the main factor in the origins and earliest development of money.
Many societies had laws requiring compensation in some form for crimes of violence, instead of the Old Testament approach of "an eye for an eye".
The author notes that the word to "pay" is derived from the Latin "pacare" meaning originally to pacify, appease, or make peace with - through the appropriate unit of value customarily acceptable to both sides.
A similarly widespread custom was payment for brides in order to compensate the head of the family for the loss of a daughter's services.
Rulers have since very ancient times imposed taxes on or exacted tribute from their subjects. Religious obligations might also entail payment of tribute or sacrifices of some kind. Thus in many societies there was a requirement for a means of payment for blood-money, bride-money, tax or tribute and this gave a great impetus to the spread of money.
Objects originally accepted for one purpose were often found to be useful for other non-economic purposes and, because of their growing acceptability began to be used for general trading also, supplementing or replacing barter.
Thus the use of money evolved out of deeply rooted customs; the clumsiness of barter provided an economic impulse but that was not the primary factor. It evolved independently in different parts of the world.
About the only civilization that functioned without money was that of the Incas. Primitive Forms of Money The use of primitive forms of money in the Third World and North America is more recent and better documented than in Europe and its study sheds light on the probable origins of modern money.
Among the topics treated are the use of wampum and the custom of the potlatch or competitive gift exchange in North America, disc-shaped stones in Yap, cowrie shells over much of Africa and Asia, cattle, manillas and whales teeth.From The Delian League To The Athenian Empire Thomas Ash Introduction.
When Athens began to emerge as a Greek city state in the ninth century, it was a poor city, built on and surrounded by undesirable land, which could support only a few poor crops and olive trees. IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history.
BECK index Socrates, Xenophon, and Plato Empedocles Socrates Xenophon's Socrates Defense of Socrates Memoirs of Socrates Symposium Oikonomikos Xenophon.
Below is the original essay prefixed to the King James Version in the edition of , in which the translators defend their version against criticisms they expected to be brought against it. Ernest Renan, “What is a Nation?”, text of a conference delivered at the Sorbonne on March 11th, , in Ernest Renan, Qu’est-ce qu’une nation?, Paris, Presses-Pocket, (translated by Ethan Rundell) I propose to analyze with you an idea which, though apparently clear, lends itself.
The development of the Athenian into an empire holds that the vital change from allied harmony to imperial subjugation occurred in the middle of the fifth century, and the factor behind it was the ratification of the Peace of Callias.