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The census put the number of Germans living in the Russian Empire at 2, There wereGermans in Kazakhstan and 21, in Kyrgyzstan ; while 33, Germans lived in Ukraine census. The Germans of Russia did not necessarily speak Russian; many spoke German, while French was often the language of the high aristocracy.
However, depending on geography and other circumstances, many Russian-Germans spoke Russian as their first or second language.
During the 19th century, many came to identify primarily as Russians, and particularly during and after the Napoleonic Warsmany Russian-Germans embraced Russian patriotism. Today's Russian Germans mostly speak Russian as they are in the gradual process of assimilation.
As such, many may not necessarily be fluent in German. Consequently, Germany has recently strictly limited their immigration, and a decline in the number of Germans in the Russian Federation has moderated as they no longer emigrate to Germany and as Kazakh Germans move to Russia instead of Germany.
As conditions for the Germans generally deteriorated in the late 19th century and early 20th century, many Germans migrated from Russia to the Americas and elsewhere, collectively known as Germans from Russia. Gradually, this policy extended to a few other major cities.
InMoscow had aboutcitizens; 18, of them were Nemtsy, which means either "German" or "western foreigner". The international community located in the German Quarter greatly influenced Peter the Great reignedand his efforts to transform Russia into a more modern European state are believed to have derived in large part from his experiences among Russia's established Germans.
By the late 17th-century, foreigners were no longer so rare in Russian cities, and Moscow's German Quarter had lost its ethnic character by the end of that century.
Vistula Germans Poland Through wars and the partitions of Poland, Prussia acquired an increasing amount of northern, western, and central Polish territory.
Germans and Dutch settled its valley starting from the Baltic Sea and moving further south with time. Eventually, Prussia acquired most of the Vistula's watershed, and the central portion of then-Poland became South Prussia.
Its existence was brief - tobut by its end many German settlers had established Protestant agricultural settlements within its earlier borders. The "Breyer Map" shows the distribution of German settlements in what became central Poland.
Napoleon's victories ended the short existence of South Prussia. The French Emperor incorporated it and other territories into the Duchy of Warsaw.
After Napoleon's defeat inhowever, the Duchy was divided. The western Posen region again became part of Prussia, while what is now central Poland became the Russian client-state Congress Poland. Many Germans remained in this central region, maintaining their middle-German Prussian dialect, similar to the Silesian dialect, and their religions.
The Vistula Germans' migrations from Congress Poland increased. Some became Polonizedhowever, and their descendants remain in Poland.
After World War II, many of those who retained their German language and customs were forcibly expelled by the Russians and the Poles, with the loss of all their property. She proclaimed open immigration for foreigners wishing to live in the Russian Empire on July 22,marking the beginning of a much larger presence for Germans in the Empire.
German colonies in the lower Volga river area were founded almost immediately afterward. These early colonies were attacked during the Pugachev uprisingwhich was centred on the Volga area, but they survived the rebellion.
German immigration was motivated in part by religious intolerance and warfare in central Europe as well as by frequently difficult economic conditions. Catherine II's declaration freed German immigrants from military service imposed on native Russians and from most taxes.
It placed the new arrivals outside of Russia's feudal hierarchy and granted them considerable internal autonomy. Moving to Russia gave German immigrants political rights that they would not have possessed in their own lands.
Religious minorities found these terms very agreeable, particularly Mennonites from the Vistula River valley. Their unwillingness to participate in military service, and their long tradition of dissent from mainstream Lutheranism and Calvinismmade life under the Prussians very difficult for them.
Nearly all of the Prussian Mennonites emigrated to Russia over the following century, leaving no more than a handful in Prussia. Although Catherine's declaration forbade them from proselytising among members of the Orthodox churchthey could evangelize Russia's Muslim and other non-Christian minorities.
German colonization was most intense in the Lower Volgabut other areas also saw an influx. The area around the Black Sea received many German immigrants, and the Mennonites favoured the lower Dniepr river area, around Ekaterinoslav now Dnipro and Aleksandrovsk now Zaporizhia.
In the chaos of the Napoleonic warsthe response from Germans was enormous.There have truly been many great rulers in history. Some managed to conquer the world, some managed to end violence and put their countries into periods of peace and stability, and some changed not only their nations, but the world.
Stalin, a Jew, was born Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili, in the mountain village of Gori in the province of Georgia in His father was a peasant from the town Dido-Lilo. His mother, Ekaterina Geladze, was a devoutly religious woman whose forebears had been serfs in the village of Gambarouli.
Some good categories include: different groups and their grievances or agendas, goals of a group or nation compared to outcomes or achievements (especially good for treaties and wars,) compare and contrast anything over SPERM categories, periodize the chronology of anything, make a causality chart or triangle for any event, compare and contrast.
In , Stalin used the murder of Sergey Kirov as a pretext to launch the Great Purge, in which about a million people perished (see). Some later historians came to believe that Stalin arranged the murder, or at least that there was sufficient evidence to reach such a conclusion.
Stalin's policy of confiscating privately owned agricultural lands and facilities and consolidating them, the farmers, and their families into large collective farms (q.v.) and state farms (q.v.).
Forced collectivization took place from to Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great. Joseph Bonaparte - Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Teheran Conference - Meeting in ; Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.