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Gemeinschaft usually translated as "community" and Gesellschaft "society" or "association". No group is exclusively one or the other.
Gemeinschaft stress personal social interactionsand the roles, values, and beliefs based on such interactions. Gesellschaft stress indirect interactions, impersonal roles, formal values, and beliefs based on such interactions.
New social tools relieve some of those burdens, allowing for new kinds of group-forming, like using simple sharing to anchor the creation of new groups.
Conversation creates more of a sense of community than sharing does. Collaborative production is a more involved form of cooperation, as it increases the tension between individual and group goals.
The litmus test for collaborative production is simple: An online community builds weaker bonds if allows users to be anonymous. Organizational communication Effective communication practices in group and organizational settings are very important to the formation and maintenance of communities.
The ways that ideas and values are communicated within communities are important to the induction of new members, the formulation of agendas, the selection of leaders and many other aspects. Organizational communication is the study of how people communicate within an organizational context and the influences and interactions within organizational structures.
Group members depend on the flow of communication to establish their own identity within these structures and learn to function in the group setting. Although organizational communication, as a field of study, is usually geared toward companies and business groups, these may also be seen as communities.
The principles of organizational communication can also be applied to other types of communities. Public administration[ edit ] Public administration is the province of local, state and federal governments, with local governments responsible for units in towns, cities, villages, and counties, among others.
The most well known "community department" is housing and community development which has responsibility for both economic development initiatives, and as public housing and community infrastructure e. Sense of community[ edit ] In a seminal study, McMillan and Chavis identify four elements of "sense of community": They give the following example of the interplay between these factors: Someone puts an announcement on the dormitory bulletin board about the formation of an intramural dormitory basketball team.
People attend the organizational meeting as strangers out of their individual needs integration and fulfillment of needs. The team is bound by place of residence membership boundaries are set and spends time together in practice the contact hypothesis. They play a game and win successful shared valent event.
While playing, members exert energy on behalf of the team personal investment in the group. As the team continues to win, team members become recognized and congratulated gaining honor and status for being membersInfluencing new members to join and continue to do the same.
Someone suggests that they all buy matching shirts and shoes common symbols and they do so influence. Although originally designed to assess sense of community in neighborhoods, the index has been adapted for use in schools, the workplace, and a variety of types of communities.
Socialization Lewes Bonfire Night procession commemorating 17 Protestant martyrs burnt at the stake from to The process of learning to adopt the behavior patterns of the community is called socialization. The most fertile time of socialization is usually the early stages of life, during which individuals develop the skills and knowledge and learn the roles necessary to function within their culture and social environment.
But socialization also includes adults moving into a significantly different environment, where they must learn a new set of behaviors. Other important influences include schools, peer groups, people, mass media, the workplace, and government.
Community development Community development is often linked with community work or community planning, and may involve stakeholders, foundations, governments, or contracted entities including non-government organisations NGOsuniversities or government agencies to progress the social well-being of local, regional and, sometimes, national communities.
More grassroots efforts, called community building or community organizingseek to empower individuals and groups of people by providing them with the skills they need to effect change in their own communities.
Public administrators, in contrast, need to understand community development in the context of rural and urban development, housing and economic development, and community, organizational and business development. Formal accredited programs conducted by universities, as part of degree granting institutions, are often used to build a knowledge base to drive curricula in public administrationsociology and community studies.
Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University are examples of national community development in the United States. The Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University in New York State offers core courses in community and economic development, and in areas ranging from non-profit development to US budgeting federal to local, community funds.
In the United Kingdom, Oxford University has led in providing extensive research in the field through its Community Development Journal,  used worldwide by sociologists and community development practitioners.
At the intersection between community development and community building are a number of programs and organizations with community development tools.
The institute makes available downloadable tools  to assess community assets and make connections between non-profit groups and other organizations that can help in community building.
Community-Making and Peace, Scott Peck argues that the almost accidental sense of community that exists at times of crisis can be consciously built.
Peck believes that conscious community building is a process of deliberate design based on the knowledge and application of certain rules. The beginning stage when people first come together.
This is the stage where people try to be nice, and present what they feel are their most personable and friendly characteristics. When people move beyond the inauthenticity of pseudo-community and feel safe enough to present their "shadow" selves.Learn more about the American Heart Association's efforts to reduce death caused by heart disease and stroke.
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